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Working Paper to Identify the W20 Priorities

We are wondering if this the documents that W20 intends to submit to the G20 leaders, because it seems to be too long for that purpose. Usually documents from the outreach groups need to be not more than 1 or 2 pages (Diego Guisande).

The “˜Concept Paper: Establishing a Women 20 (W20) Outreach Group under the G20′ promulgated by the Government of Turkey as President of the G20 in 2015, proposed the establishment of a W20 as a full-fledged G20 outreach group to focus on promoting gender-inclusive economic growth. The mandate is to advance recent G20 commitments on: Women’s full economic and social participation (Los Cabos Leaders’ Declaration, 2012); enhance women’s financial inclusion and education (St Petersburg Leaders’ Declaration, 2013); and reduce the gap in participation rates between men and women in our countries by 25 per cent by 2025, taking into account national circumstances (Brisbane Leaders’ Declaration, 2014). Additional areas of focus identified in the concept note include promoting women’s entrepreneurship, women’s leadership in business and the public sector, and healthcare. Special mention was made that women’s interests remain represented across all G20 work streams: the intention is not to create a repository for gender issues but for the W20 to rather help mainstream gender economic inclusiveness. The Concept Note further envisaged “a high-level policy forum to be held in Turkey ahead of the G20 Leaders’ Summit”. This note is provided by KAGIDER as Chair of the national troika after consultation with partners KADEM and TİKAD, as a deeper dive into the priority policy areas of the W20. These priorities are aligned with the three pillars of the G20 under the leadership of the Turkish Presidency: 1) Strengthening Global Recovery and Lifting Potential, 2) Enhancing Resilience and 3) Buttressing Sustainability.

 

Strengthening Global Recovery and Lifting Potential

  1. Address women’s economic empowerment through linkages between education, employment and entrepreneurship

G20 commitments to education, employment and entrepreneurship for women are articulated in The St. Petersburg Leaders’ Declaration (special focus on youth: young women and men) including through apprenticeship and vocational training programs (paragraph 29) and recommendations on girls need for financial education (paragraph 80). The Beijing Declaration for Action provides a rich set of broad policy recommendations in these areas, particularly under the strategic objectives on Women and Poverty, Education and Training of Women, and Women and the Economy.

Gains that are made, for example, in closing the gap in labour force participation, need to be analyzed to ascertain attribution: One of the reasons the gap in labor force participation has not decreased substantially since 1995 is because more women are staying in school. At the same, time women who do pursue education still face considerable challenges in obtaining, remaining and progressing in decent and productive employment (ILO). It is often assumed that gains in educational attainment will result in gains in employment and entrepreneurship, but this is not necessarily the case without appropriate policy interventions. The mechanisms in which these three fundamental pillars of economic growth interact as well as the gender differences and gaps must be better understood to guide policy. It is important for such actions to address supply side and demand side constraints faced by women. For example, a woman’s decision to seek employment or start a business is influenced by her understanding of accounting, taxes and marketing, as well as the availability of opportunities in the market. A mismatch between education provided and skills required succeeding in business or the job market, can exacerbate gender gaps.

To match demand and supply sides a strong coordination is needed among between social and economic policies on education and labor market (Diego Guisande).

There is a difference between women’s economic empowerment and their integration into the labor market. Women’s greater participation in the work force does not automatically translate into their better (ILO) mean control over resources or power to decide on (ILO) or negotiate the distribution of returns (Jessica Woodroffe). Women’s labor force participation must bring along economic empowerment.

Employment covers wage and salary employment and wage earner represent majority, special procedures may need to be developed for women in wage employment (Ass. Professor Ipek Ilkkaracan).

G20 Education Ministers to review good practices for women to study in STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) areas (Jeni Klugman and Paola Subacchi). It is necessary to address the by developing systems to close the persistent disparities between girls and boys in STEM, financial and entrepreneurial areas (Rosa Urbon).

Re-training, life-long learning programs or continuing education should be made available for women especially in ageing populations (Natalia Fileva, Victoria Panova & Alena Peryshkina).

Design programs to orient and train young graduates for skills that business needs (Diego Guisande).

Global Skills Accelerator to be designed to include a space for women of all ages in the education plan (Ass. Prof. Susan Harris Rimmer).

  1. Eliminate workplace discrimination, enforce rights and promote equal opportunities

Ending workplace discrimination and occupational segregation are critical to realizing women’s economic rights and decreasing the wage gaps and other gender inequalities in the labor market. Accountability mechanisms such as the FEM certification developed by KAGIDER and the World Bank aid in identifying equal opportunity employers. A component of the screening includes an audit of human resource policies. Additionally, countries could strengthen protections for women workers by improving the grievance systems and promoting corporate diversity policies. The Cannes Summit Final Declaration reaffirms respect for fundamental principles and rights, and work at the normative level. The recommendations in Beijing Platform for Action (BfA) F.1 and F.5 can further illuminate this area. In addition to public policy reforms, businesses can overhaul corporate policies through adherence to the Women’s Empowerment Principles (WEPs).

Equal pay for work of equal value (ILO) must be raised as an issue to implement measures (Jessica Woodroffe and Ass. Professor Ipek Ilkkaracan). Promote pay transparency to ensure equal pay (Rosa Urbon).

Eliminate all legal discrimination against women (Jeni Klugman and Paola Subacchi).

Undertake a gender audit of public sector employees (Jeni Klugman and Paola Subacchi).

Many women claim that procedures tend to be easier when they are accompanied by a male family member (Gina Diaz Barrosa and Maria del Carmen Bernal Gonzales).

Establish zero tolerance policy towards all forms of violence at work (Gina Diaz Barrosa and Maria del Carmen Bernal Gonzales).

Modify procurement rules and procedures to gender balance the fact that out of total government procurement awards only 2 % goes to women (Ass. Prof. Susan Harris Rimmer).

Remove barriers and modernize laws combined with a public communication campaign to invite women to be a part of the economy (Ass. Prof. Susan Harris Rimmer).

Include equal opportunity models among good company practices and as an essential element in inclusive business models through G20 Inclusive Business Framework (ILO).

  1. Ensure women’s access to finance and productive assets

The G20 has taken a variety of actions to increase women’s financial inclusion, and these efforts can be amplified through engagement with the W20. In 2010 the G20 agreed to launch the Global Partnership for Financial Inclusion (GPFI) and created a framework for financial inclusion. The Los Cabos Declaration was especially instrumental in terms of ramping up G20 efforts in the area of financial inclusion, especially because it endorses the G20 Basic Set of Financial Inclusion Indicators (paragraph 50) and specifically recognizes the need for women and youth to gain access to financial services and financial education (paragraph 53). In St. Petersburg, members agreed to launch the Women’s Finance Hub with the IFC. Continuation of efforts to promote financial inclusion of women can be in the form of both microfinance and mainstream finance. Strategic objective F2 of the Beijing Platform for Action offers some guidance on what works for women. TIKAD’s program on Women Banking affords lessons learnt.

Encourage financial institutions to invest in non-financial services like mentoring (Jennifer Bisceglie).

Access to capital can open up economic opportunities for women and for this reason special banking programs can be a gateway to efficient use of additional financial services (Anne Fulwood).

  1. Support women owned enterprises and innovation

Small and medium enterprises employ 80 per cent of workers, with their success linked to increased job generation. Women-owned enterprises are currently weakly linked to public procurement markets with estimates of women owned companies winning less 1 per cent of tenders. Policies targeting sourcing from companies owned by women combined with capacity building programs, programs to boost the competitiveness of women owned companies, building transparent requests for proposals and tendering systems, fair and equal treatment programs that include closing information gaps, smaller contracts sizes, transparent and adapted or flexible (ILO)  timely payments systems and gender budget allocation can foster women’s participation in this sizable market. This also incentivizes the movement of women from the informal to the formal sector. Tax incentives and tax regimes need to be examined to determine disproportionate burdens on women.

In addition, policies need to be identified to support women in high impact and scalable businesses. According to the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (2012) an estimated 126 million women were starting or running new businesses in 67 economies around the world. In addition, an estimated 98 million were running established businesses. These women are not only creating jobs for themselves and their co-founders, but they also employ others. A projected 48 million female entrepreneurs and 64 million female business owners currently employ one or more people in their businesses. In addition, these women plan to grow their businesses. A predicted seven million female entrepreneurs and five million female established business owners plan to grow their businesses by at least six employees over the next five years. Sustainability of these companies will contribute significantly to inclusive economic growth.

Women entrepreneurship programs need to be established with special focus on young women (Paola Degani).

Tax system needs to be simplified for women owned enterprises (or below scale enterprises) and tax incentive needs to be given for employment of women (Natalia Fileva, Victoria Panova & Alena Peryshkina).

Encourage transparency of achievements through developing an index system for country and company women empowerment ratings (Barbara Leda Kenny).

Increase the share of women owned or led companies in public procurement that meets a gender criterion to be specified and share good practices on public procurement among G20 Ministers (Jeni Klugman and Paola Subacchi). Develop transparent and inclusive procurement policies, set minimum quotas, like 10%, create inclusive supply chains, certify women owned businesses and enable women’s access to markets (Jennifer Bisceglie).

Implement awareness campaigns, training programs, mentoring, coaching, advice on legal and financial matters, create specialized business angels (Rosa Urbon).

For women to have the confidence to ‘lean in’, they need to have the confidence to communicate and impart their message with authority. Design training programs for women to enhance their communication skills (Anne Fulwood).

In a world of constant changes, women are vital to promote and lead the innovation process (Gina Diaz Barrosa and Maria del Carmen Bernal Gonzales).

  1. Increase women in both public sector and private sector leadership positions

Lack of women on corporate boards has consequences for societies. Studies show that corporations with more women on their boards behave differently. They are more consumers oriented, more transparent, more environmentally conscious and have better human resources policies for women employees. Women employees are better motivated if there are women on the board. Companies with women directors also tend to have less structural layoffs. Empowering women fuels thriving economies, spurring productivity and growth. In the aftermath of the financial crisis, various commentators and government ministers have suggested that the tragic collapse of some major institutions might have been mitigated had there been more women on the boards to moderate the financial performance focused risk-taking culture. This view backed up by a number of research studies on the effect of gender on risk-taking, which shows that women are more stakeholder oriented and more risk averse than men.

Women quotas in political representation aim to encourage improving women’s condition through laws and policies, they would not be effective unless they are coupled with the quotas for women in corporate boards, which have the power to allocate economic / financial resources, to develop human capital and have the capacity to influence laws and regulations through political lobbying. Largest companies listed on the stock exchanges around the world play a significant role in global business as well as contributing significantly to the national economies within which they operate. The decisions taken by these companies have ramifications not only for their businesses and their employees but also for the whole economy. Additionally, education, mentoring and support in the careers, and improving working conditions of women are important pathways to reach diversity in boardrooms.

Targets could be formulated to tackle the lack of women’s representation, for example, to increase the number of Women on the Boards and Top Management as well as in Government Offices by 20% by 2020. Opportunities exist to increase women’s participation in G20 processes. both through official engagement groups as well in meetings with government representatives. (Rosa Urbon)

Increase the number of women in managerial positions (Claudia Grosse-Leege).

A quota for women in decision making roles needs to be proposed to the governments as a legislative pillar to build on next steps of gender inclusiveness (Ulrike Helwerth).

Voluntary target setting and disclosure requirements may help gender diversity in the Boards and leadership positions in the public sector. Increase the candidate pool (Rosa Urbon).

For quotas to be effective policies like work and life balance infrastructural measures need to be in place (Diego Guisande).

  1. Strengthen women’s economic, social and political networks

Women’s business organizations and associations play a catalytic role in fostering the participation of women in all facets of business and society. They area also an important knowledge multiplier in terms of raising awareness about how to leverage new policies and partner with government and the private sector to amplify success. The W20 could act as a vehicle for the wider dissemination of information on G20 initiatives and encourage women to take a more active role in politics, and consultations on polices and the development of national or sectoral development plans.

Create the voice of collective concern of women by forming a network women employees or producers. (Jessica Woodroffe).

Enhancing visibility of women entrepreneurs through media is a solution proposal for encouraging more women in the economy (Barbara Leda Kenny).

Enhancing Resilience

  1. Support Work-life Balance.

The labor force participation rate is 56% for women and 86% for men. In 2014, G20 countries undertook to reduce this gender gap by 25% by 2025 with the expectation to bring 100 million women into the work force. The lack of available, affordable, appropriate childcare services and facilities is a key impediment to the G20 member states ability to realize commitments to gender inclusive economic growth. The W20 work plan under construction includes undertaking a review of childcare policies and practices, particularly for the years 0 – 3 years, in G20 member states to identify good practices that could be replicated. Investment in childcare facilities and the running of the centres themselves, represent an area of under-realized job generation.

Offering childcare services that enable women to achieve work-life balance is in line with commitments G20 members have made in the area of improving social protection and work conditions, as well as resolving to increase female labor force participation. The Cannes Summit Final Declaration (2011) explicitly mentions the report of the Social Protection Floor Advisory Group. The Los Cabos Leader’s Declaration (2012) reaffirms the priorities of the Cannes summit in 2011, where members agree to “advance gender equality in all areas including skills training, wages and salaries, treatment in the workplace, and responsibilities in care-giving”.

Governments to improve and develop infrastructural investments in countries for better social care services that includes child, elderly, disabled and sick care. This includes re-training and 24 hour service for people in need of professional assistance (Ass. Professor Ipek Ilkkaracan).

In aging societies elderly care is a growing social and political challenge for the governments (Ulrike Helwerth).

There still remains room for the G20 is explore more in depth the relationship between gender equality, women’s economic empowerment and responsibility for childcare. For this reason the first concrete step is to review existing policies and growth strategies of member countries and analyze the extent to which they support paid family leave and flexible work hours. Different strategies could be compared in order to identify best practices and lessons learned. This analysis could also be applied to elderly care, which is an area, like childcare that also presents job generation opportunities.

Policy proposals could be designed to include more part time and flexible work with decent pay and secure conditions envisaging responsibility of both man and women in social care (Jessica Woodroffe).

Develop mechanisms to sharing paid and unpaid work between man and women (Rosa Urbon).

Encourage men to assume family responsibilities (Claudia Grosse-Leege).  Encourage men to be part of the family’s care responsibility (Joohee Lee).

Women and men must manage to attend together the affairs that relate to home, work and life. Prioritize home as the first company to adhere to for both of the genders (Gina Diaz Barrosa and Maria del Carmen Bernal Gonzales).

To support work and life balance and social care infrastructure by decreasing the taxes both for care entrepreneurs and care employees (Joohee Lee).

  1. Deliver Adequate Social Protection

Social protection is a key component of economic resilience and poverty eradication. It can disproportionately benefit women, who often provide more support and care to the elderly, disabled and vulnerable in society and have gender specific healthcare needs. When adequate services and protections are available, sustained health contributes not only to better wellbeing but greater productivity with increased time available, including to erstwhile caregivers, to engage in income-generating activities.

Social protection would include and ensure that women are eligible, even though they do not have a consistent and recognized paid employment (Jessica Woodroffe) or have alternative forms of employment like job sharing ((Natalia Fileva, Victoria Panova & Alena Peryshkina). 

Link this work with outputs of the Employment Working Group, where social protection issue is addressed (Diego Guisande).

  1. Improve Working Conditions

Existing G20 commitments support improving working conditions and quality part time work, work hours (Jessica Woodroffe and Ass. Professor Ipek Ilkkaracan) and reducing informal, vulnerable and precarious employment, and are articulated in both the Seoul Development Consensus and the St. Petersburg Leaders’ Declaration. Under the latter, G20 members commit to improve job quality, including through working conditions, wage bargaining frameworks, national wage-setting systems and access to social protection. This is in accord with the findings and recommendations of the 2015 Progress of the World’s Women Report, which outlines a transformative framework for gender responsive macroeconomic policy. One recommendation is to set targets, for example to reduce the number of jobs without social security by 20 percent by 2025.

Delete this paragraph (Rosa Urbon).

Buttressing Sustainability

  1. Promote women’s leadership in creating sustainable consumption patterns and green growth

The G20 increasingly prioritizes green growth, as in the use of renewable energy, reduction of wasteful and consumption patterns, and technological advancements that help to conserve natural resource and protect the environment. Women are not only beneficiaries of such actions, but they are also some of the primary agents of change and can play an important role in the movement to reduce, reuse and recycle. Policies coupled with education for sustainable practices can foster women’s participation in the growing market for green enterprises and green jobs Goal 12 of the evolving Sustainable Development Goals is particularly relevant as an entry point for work in this area.

Make the role of the women in the rural settings more visible (Rosa Urbon).

  1. Engender agricultural and food security policy with special attention to rural women

The G20 devotes considerable attention to the area of food security and agricultural protection. For example, the Seoul Development Consensus endorses the Rome Principles and agrees to work with relevant international institutions. The issue of food security and agricultural production are key topics among G20 agricultural ministers, who also meet in parallel to finance ministers and central bank representatives. The W20 could feed into these discussions by collating good practices and elaborating policy proposals. Areas of focus could include women’s cooperatives, community kitchens, women’s engagement in the organic farming value chain, and identifying infrastructure solutions that benefit women such as lighting and feeder roads to farms, and public transport solutions to facilitate the movement of goods and women service providers. Gender-sensitive value chain analyses would inform an understanding of how best to integrate women into agricultural projects, including in non-farm sectors such as logistics and administration.

Because women in rural settings often represent some of the most marginalized, vulnerable and underserved segments of the population, the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals related to agriculture and food security need to be particularly sensitive to the situation of women, building in job creation and entrepreneurship opportunities, whilst addressing factors that limit rural women’s full realization of their potential.

 

12) Collect more and increase the variety of gender data in business (Jennifer Bisceglie).

Labor Ministers’ Meeting Priority Paper Short Version

The ‘Concept Paper: Establishing a Women 20 (W20) Outreach Group under the G20’ promulgated by the Government of Turkey as President of the G20 in 2015, proposed the establishment of a W20 as a full-fledged G20 outreach group to focus on promoting gender-inclusive economic growth. The mandate is to advance recent G20 commitments on: Women’s full economic and social participation (Los Cabos Leaders’ Declaration, 2012); enhance women’s financial inclusion and education (St Petersburg Leaders’ Declaration, 2013); and reduce the gap in participation rates between men and women in our countries by 25 per cent by 2025, taking into account national circumstances (Brisbane Leaders’ Declaration, 2014).

The priorities are aligned with the three pillars of the G20 under the leadership of the Turkish Presidency: 1) Strengthening Global Recovery and Lifting Potential, 2) Enhancing Resilience and 3) Buttressing Sustainability.

Strengthening Global Recovery and Lifting Potential

  1. Address women’s economic empowerment through linkages between education, employment and entrepreneurship

 G20 commitments to education, employment and entrepreneurship for women are articulated in The St. Petersburg Leaders’ Declaration (special focus on youth: young women and men) including through apprenticeship and vocational training programs and recommendations on girls need for financial education. The Beijing Declaration for Action provides a rich set of broad policy recommendations in these areas, particularly under the strategic objectives on Women and Poverty, Education and Training of Women, and Women and the Economy. One of the reasons the gap in labor force participation has not decreased substantially since 1995 is because more women are staying in school. At the same, time women who do pursue education still face considerable challenges in obtaining employment. It is often assumed that gains in educational attainment will result in gains in employment and entrepreneurship, but this is not necessarily the case without appropriate policy interventions. The mechanisms in which these three fundamental pillars of economic growth interact as well as the gender differences and gaps must be better understood to guide policy. It is important for such actions to address supply side and demand side constraints faced by women. A mismatch between education provided and skills required succeeding in business or the job market, can exacerbate gender gaps. Further, there is a difference between women’s economic empowerment and their integration into the labor market. Women’s greater participation in the work force does not mean control over resources or power to negotiate the distribution of returns. Women’s labor force participation must bring along economic empowerment. Employment covers wage and salary employment and wage earners may represent the majority and hence special procedures may need to be developed for women in wage employment.

 Eliminate workplace discrimination, enforce rights and promote equal opportunities

 Ending workplace discrimination and occupational segregation are critical to realizing women’s economic rights and decreasing the wage gaps and other gender inequalities in the labor market. Accountability mechanisms aid in identifying equal opportunity employers. A component of the screening includes an audit of human resource policies. Additionally, countries could strengthen protections for women workers by improving the grievance systems and promoting corporate diversity policies. The Cannes Summit Final Declaration reaffirms respect for fundamental principles and rights, and work at the normative level. The recommendations in Beijing Platform for Action (BfA) F.1 and F.5 can further illuminate this area. In addition to public policy reforms, businesses can overhaul corporate policies through adherence to the Women’s Empowerment Principles (WEPs). From equal opportunity concept equal pay for equal work must be raised as an issue to implement measures. One policy proposal is to include equal opportunity models among good company practices.

  1. Ensure women’s access to finance and productive assets

The G20 has taken a variety of actions to increase women’s financial inclusion, and these efforts can be amplified through engagement with the W20. In 2010 the G20 agreed to launch the Global Partnership for Financial Inclusion (GPFI) and created a framework for financial inclusion. The Los Cabos Declaration was especially instrumental in terms of ramping up G20 efforts in the area of financial inclusion, especially because it endorses the G20 Basic Set of Financial Inclusion Indicators and specifically recognizes the need for women and youth to gain access to financial services and financial education. In St. Petersburg, members agreed to launch the Women’s Finance Hub with the IFC. Continuation of efforts to promote financial inclusion of women can be in the form of both microfinance and mainstream finance. Strategic objective F2 of the Beijing Platform for Action offers some guidance on what works for women.

  1. Support women owned enterprises and innovation

Small and medium enterprises employ 80 percent of workers and their success is linked to increased job generation. Women-owned enterprises are currently weakly linked to public procurement markets with estimates of women owned companies winning less 1 per cent of tenders. Policies targeting sourcing from companies owned by women combined with capacity building programs, programs to boost the competitiveness of women owned companies, building transparent requests for proposals and tendering systems, fair and equal treatment programs that include closing information gaps, smaller contracts sizes, transparent and timely payments systems and gender budget allocation can foster women’s participation in this sizable market. This also incentivizes the movement of women from the informal to the formal sector. Tax incentives and tax regimes need to be examined to determine disproportionate burdens on women. In addition, policies need to be identified to support women in high impact and scalable businesses. According to the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (2012) an estimated 126 million women were starting or running new businesses in 67 economies around the world. In addition, an estimated 98 million were running established businesses. These women are not only creating jobs for themselves and their co-founders, but they also employ others. A projected 48 million female entrepreneurs and 64 million female business owners currently employ one or more people in their businesses. In addition, these women plan to grow their businesses. A predicted seven million female entrepreneurs and five million female established business owners plan to grow their businesses by at least six employees over the next five years. Sustainability of these women owned companies will contribute significantly to inclusive economic growth.

  1. Increase women in both public sector and private sector leadership positions

Lack of women on corporate boards has consequences for societies. Studies show that corporations with more women on their boards behave differently. They are more consumers oriented, more transparent, more environmentally conscious and have better human resources policies for women employees. Women employees are better motivated if there are women on the board. Companies with women directors also tend to have less structural layoffs. Empowering women fuels thriving economies, spurring productivity and growth. In the aftermath of the financial crisis, various commentators and government ministers have suggested that the tragic collapse of some major institutions might have been mitigated had there been more women on the boards to moderate the financial performance focused risk-taking culture. This view backed up by a number of research studies on the effect of gender on risk-taking, which shows that women are more stakeholder oriented and more risk averse than men. Women quotas in political representation aim to encourage improving women’s condition through laws and policies, they would not be effective unless they are coupled with the quotas for women in corporate boards, which have the power to allocate economic/ financial resources, to develop human capital and have the capacity to influence laws and regulations through political lobbying. Largest companies listed on the stock exchanges around the world play a significant role in global business as well as contributing significantly to the national economies within which they operate. The decisions taken by these companies have ramifications not only for their businesses and their employees but also for the whole economy. Additionally, education, mentoring and support in the careers, and improving working conditions of women are important pathways to reach diversity in boardrooms. Targets could be formulated to tackle the lack of women’s representation, for example, to increase the number of Women on the Boards and Top Management as well as in Government Offices by 20% by 2020.

  1. Strengthen women’s economic, social and political networks

Women’s business organizations and associations play a catalytic role in fostering the participation of women in all facets of business and society. They area also an important knowledge multiplier in terms of raising awareness about how to leverage new policies and partner with government and the private sector to amplify success. The W20 could act as a vehicle for the wider dissemination of information on G20 initiatives and encourage women to take a more active role in politics, and consultations on polices and the development of national or sectoral development plans. Create mechanisms to voice of collective concern of women by forming networks for women employees, employers and / or producers.

Enhancing Resilience

  1. Support Work-life Balance and Social Care Infrastructure

The labor force participation rate is 56% for women and 86% for men. In 2014, G20 countries undertook to reduce this gender gap by 25% by 2025 with the expectation to bring 100 million women into the work force. The lack of available, affordable, appropriate childcare services and facilities is a key impediment to the G20 member states ability to realize commitments to gender inclusive economic growth. The W20 work plan under construction includes undertaking a review of childcare policies and practices, particularly for the years 0 – 3 years, in G20 member states to identify good practices that could be replicated. Investment in childcare facilities and the running of the centres themselves, represent an area of under-realized job generation. Offering childcare services that enable women to achieve work-life balance is in line with commitments G20 members have made in the area of improving social protection and work conditions, as well as resolving to increase female labor force participation. Governments can improve and develop infrastructural investments in countries for better social care services that include child, elderly, disabled and sick care. This includes re-training and 24 hour service for people in need of professional assistance.

Policy proposals could be designed to include more part time and flexible work with decent pay and secure conditions envisaging responsibility of both man and women in social care.

  1. Deliver Adequate Social Protection

Social protection is a key component of economic resilience and poverty eradication. It can disproportionately benefit women, who often provide more support and care to the elderly, disabled and vulnerable in society and have gender specific healthcare needs. When adequate services and protections are available, sustained health contributes not only to better wellbeing but greater productivity with increased time available, including to erstwhile caregivers, to engage in income-generating activities. Social protection would include and ensure that women are eligible, even though they do not have a consistent and recognized paid employment.

  1. Improve Working Conditions

Existing G20 commitments support improving working conditions and quality part time work, work hours and reducing informal, vulnerable and precarious employment, and are articulated in both the

Seoul Development Consensus and the St. Petersburg Leaders’ Declaration. Under the latter, G20 members commit to improve job quality, including through working conditions, wage bargaining frameworks, national wage-setting systems and access to social protection. This is in accord with the findings and recommendations of the 2015 Progress of the World’s Women Report, which outlines a transformative framework for gender responsive macroeconomic policy. One recommendation is to set targets, for example to reduce the number of jobs without social security by 20 percent by 2025.

Buttressing Sustainability

  1. Promote women’s leadership in creating sustainable consumption patterns and green growth

The G20 increasingly prioritizes green growth, as in the use of renewable energy, reduction of wasteful and consumption patterns, and technological advancements that help to conserve natural resource and protect the environment. Women are not only beneficiaries of such actions, but they are also some of the primary agents of change and can play an important role in the movement to reduce, reuse and recycle. Policies coupled with education for sustainable practices can foster women’s participation in the growing market for green enterprises and green jobs Goal 12 of the evolving Sustainable Development Goals is particularly relevant as an entry point for work in this area.

  1. Engender and enrich agricultural and food security policy with special attention to rural women

The G20 devtes considerable attention to the area of food security and agricultural protection. The W20 could feed into these discussions by collating good practices and elaborating policy proposals.

Areas of focus could include women’s cooperatives, community kitchens, women’s engagement in the organic farming value chain, and identifying infrastructure solutions that benefit women such as lighting and feeder roads to farms. Public transport solutions to facilitate the movement of goods and women service providers. Gender-sensitive value chain would enhance how to best integrate women into agricultural projects, including in non-farm sectors such as logistics and administration. Women in rural settings are key to the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals related to agriculture and food security.

W20 Priority Paper (as of August 8, 2015)

The Concept Paper: Establishing a Women 20 (W20) Outreach Group under the G20′ promulgated by the Government of Turkey as President of the G20 in 2015, proposed the establishment of a W20 as a full-fledged G20 outreach group to focus on promoting gender-inclusive economic growth. The mandate is to advance recent G20 commitments on: Women’s full economic and social participation (Los Cabos Leaders’ Declaration, 2012); enhance women’s financial inclusion and education (St Petersburg Leaders’ Declaration, 2013); and reduce the gap in participation rates between men and women in our countries by 25 per cent by 2025, taking into account national circumstances (Brisbane Leaders’ Declaration, 2014). Additional areas of focus identified in the concept note include promoting women’s entrepreneurship, women’s leadership in business and the public sector, and healthcare. Special mention was made that women’s interests remain represented across all G20 work streams: the intention is not to create a repository for gender issues but for the W20 to rather help mainstream gender economic inclusiveness. The Concept Note further envisaged “a high-level policy forum to be held in Turkey ahead of the G20 Leaders’ Summit”. This note is provided by KAGIDER as Chair of the national troika after consultation with partners KADEM and TİKAD, as a deeper dive into the priority policy areas of the W20. These priorities are aligned with the three pillars of the G20 under the leadership of the Turkish Presidency: 1) Strengthening Global Recovery and Lifting Potential, 2) Enhancing Resilience and 3) Buttressing Sustainability.

Strengthening Global Recovery and Lifting Potential

1. Address women’s economic empowerment through linkages between education, employment and entrepreneurship

G20 commitments to education, employment and entrepreneurship for women are articulated in The St. Petersburg Leaders’ Declaration (special focus on youth: young women and men) including through apprenticeship and vocational training programs (paragraph 29) and recommendations on girls need for financial education (paragraph 80). The Beijing Declaration for Action provides a rich set of broad policy recommendations in these areas, particularly under the strategic objectives on Women and Poverty, Education and Training of Women, and Women and the Economy Gains that are made, for example, in closing the gap in labour force participation, need to be analyzed to ascertain attribution: One of the reasons the gap in labor force participation has not decreased substantially since 1995 is because more women are staying in school. At the same, time women who do pursue education still face considerable challenges in obtaining employment. It is often assumed that gains in educational attainment will result in gains in employment and entrepreneurship, but this is not necessarily the case without appropriate policy interventions. The mechanisms in which these three fundamental pillars of economic growth interact as well as the gender differences and gaps must be better understood to guide policy. It is important for such actions to address supply side and demand side constraints faced by women. For example, a woman’s decision to seek employment or start a business is influenced by her understanding of accounting, taxes and marketing, as well as the availability of opportunities in the market. A mismatch between education provided and skills required succeeding in business or the job market, can exacerbate gender gaps.

There is a difference between women’s economic empowerment and their integration into the labor market. Women’s greater participation in the work force does not mean control over resources or power to negotiate the distribution of returns (Jessica Woodroffe). Women’s labor force participation must bring along economic empowerment.

Employment covers wage and salary employment and wage earner represent majority, special procedures may need to be developed for women in wage employment. (Ass. Professor Ipek Ilkkaracan)

2. Eliminate workplace discrimination, enforce rights and promote equal opportunities

Ending workplace discrimination and occupational segregation are critical to realizing women’s economic rights and decreasing the wage gaps and other gender inequalities in the labor market. Accountability mechanisms such as the FEM certification developed by KAGIDER and the World Bank aid in identifying equal opportunity employers. A component of the screening includes an audit of human resource policies. Additionally, countries could strengthen protections for women workers by improving the grievance systems and promoting corporate diversity policies. The Cannes Summit Final Declaration reaffirms respect for fundamental principles and rights, and work at the normative level. The recommendations in Beijing Platform for Action (BfA) F.1 and F.5 can further illuminate this area. In addition to public policy reforms, businesses can overhaul corporate policies through adherence to the Women’s Empowerment Principles (WEPs).

Equal pay for equal work must be raised as an issue to implement measures (Jessica Woodroffe and Ass. Professor Ipek Ilkkaracan).

3. Ensure women’s access to finance and productive assets

The G20 has taken a variety of actions to increase women’s financial inclusion, and these efforts can be amplified through engagement with the W20. In 2010 the G20 agreed to launch the Global Partnership for Financial Inclusion (GPFI) and created a framework for financial inclusion. The Los Cabos Declaration was especially instrumental in terms of ramping up G20 efforts in the area of financial inclusion, especially because it endorses the G20 Basic Set of Financial Inclusion Indicators (paragraph 50) and specifically recognizes the need for women and youth to gain access to financial services and financial education (paragraph 53). In St. Petersburg, members agreed to launch the Women’s Finance Hub with the IFC. Continuation of efforts to promote financial inclusion of women can be in the form of both microfinance and mainstream finance. Strategic objective F2 of the Beijing Platform for Action offers some guidance on what works for women. TIKAD’s program on Women Banking affords lessons learnt.

4. Support women owned enterprises and innovation

Small and medium enterprises employ 80 per cent of workers, with their success linked to increased job generation. Women-owned enterprises are currently weakly linked to public procurement markets with estimates of women owned companies winning less 1 per cent of tenders. Policies targeting sourcing from companies owned by women combined with capacity building programs, programs to boost the competitiveness of women owned companies, building transparent requests for proposals and tendering systems, fair and equal treatment programs that include closing information gaps, smaller contracts sizes, transparent and timely payments systems and gender budget allocation can foster women’s participation in this sizable market. This also incentivizes the movement of women from the informal to the formal sector. Tax incentives and tax regimes need to be examined to determine disproportionate burdens on women.

In addition, policies need to be identified to support women in high impact and scalable businesses. According to the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (2012) an estimated 126 million women were starting or running new businesses in 67 economies around the world. In addition, an estimated 98 million were running established businesses. These women are not only creating jobs for themselves and their co-founders, but they also employ others. A projected 48 million female entrepreneurs and 64 million female business owners currently employ one or more people in their businesses. In addition, these women plan to grow their businesses. A predicted seven million female entrepreneurs and five million female established business owners plan to grow their businesses by at least six employees over the next five years. Sustainability of these companies will contribute significantly to inclusive economic growth.

5. Increase women in both public sector and private sector leadership positions

Lack of women on corporate boards has consequences for societies. Studies show that corporations with more women on their boards behave differently. They are more consumers oriented, more transparent, more environmentally conscious and have better human resources policies for women employees. Women employees are better motivated if there are women on the board. Companies with women directors also tend to have less structural layoffs. Empowering women fuels thriving economies, spurring productivity and growth. In the aftermath of the financial crisis, various commentators and government ministers have suggested that the tragic collapse of some major institutions might have been mitigated had there been more women on the boards to moderate the financial performance focused risk-taking culture. This view backed up by a number of research studies on the effect of gender on risk-taking, which shows that women are more stakeholder oriented and more risk averse than men.

Women quotas in political representation aim to encourage improving women’s condition through laws and policies, they would not be effective unless they are coupled with the quotas for women in corporate boards, which have the power to allocate economic / financial resources, to develop human capital and have the capacity to influence laws and regulations through political lobbying. Largest companies listed on the stock exchanges around the world play a significant role in global business as well as contributing significantly to the national economies within which they operate. The decisions taken by these companies have ramifications not only for their businesses and their employees but also for the whole economy. Additionally, education, mentoring and support in the careers, and improving working conditions of women are important pathways to reach diversity in boardrooms.

Targets could be formulated to tackle the lack of women’s representation, for example, to increase the number of Women on the Boards and Top Management as well as in Government Offices by 20% by 2020. Opportunities exist to increase women’s participation in G20 processes, both through official engagement groups as well in meetings with government representatives.

6. Strengthen women’s economic, social and political networks

Women’s business organizations and associations play a catalytic role in fostering the participation of women in all facets of business and society. They area also an important knowledge multiplier in terms of raising awareness about how to leverage new policies and partner with government and the private sector to amplify success. The W20 could act as a vehicle for the wider dissemination of information on G20 initiatives and encourage women to take a more active role in politics, and consultations on polices and the development of national or sectoral development plans.

Create the voice of collective concern of women by forming a network women employees or producers. (Jessica Woodroffe).

Enhancing Resilience

7. Support Work-life Balance.

The labor force participation rate is 56% for women and 86% for men. In 2014, G20 countries undertook to reduce this gender gap by 25% by 2025 with the expectation to bring 100 million women into the work force. The lack of available, affordable, appropriate childcare services and facilities is a key impediment to the G20 member states ability to realize commitments to gender inclusive economic growth. The W20 work plan under construction includes undertaking a review of childcare policies and practices, particularly for the years 0 – 3 years, in G20 member states to identify good practices that could be replicated. Investment in childcare facilities and the running of the centres themselves, represent an area of under-realized job generation.

Offering childcare services that enable women to achieve work-life balance is in line with commitments G20 members have made in the area of improving social protection and work conditions, as well as resolving to increase female labor force participation. The Cannes Summit Final Declaration (2011) explicitly mentions the report of the Social Protection Floor Advisory Group. The Los Cabos Leader’s Declaration (2012) reaffirms the priorities of the Cannes summit in

2011, where members agree to “advance gender equality in all areas including skills training, wages and salaries, treatment in the workplace, and responsibilities in care-giving”.

Governments to improve and develop infrastructural investments in countries for better social care services that includes child, elderly, disabled and sick care. This includes re-training and 24 hour service for people in need of professional assistance (Ass. Professor Ipek Ilkkaracan).

There still remains room for the G20 is explore more in depth the relationship between gender equality, women’s economic empowerment and responsibility for childcare. For this reason the first concrete step is to review existing policies and growth strategies of member countries and analyze the extent to which they support paid family leave and flexible work hours. Different strategies could be compared in order to identify best practices and lessons learned. This analysis could also be applied to elderly care, which is an area, like childcare that also presents job generation opportunities.

Policy proposals could be designed to include more part time and flexible work with decent pay and secure conditions envisaging responsibility of both man and women in social care (Jessica Woodroffe).

8. Deliver Adequate Social Protection

Social protection is a key component of economic resilience and poverty eradication. It can disproportionately benefit women, who often provide more support and care to the elderly, disabled and vulnerable in society and have gender specific healthcare needs. When adequate services and protections are available, sustained health contributes not only to better wellbeing but greater productivity with increased time available, including to erstwhile caregivers, to engage in income- generating activities.

Social protection would include and ensure that women are eligible, even though they do not have a consistent and recognized paid employment (Jessica Woodroffe).

9. Improve Working Conditions

Existing G20 commitments support improving working conditions and quality part time work, work hours (Jessica Woodroffe and Ass. Professor Ipek Ilkkaracan) and reducing informal, vulnerable and precarious employment, and are articulated in both the Seoul Development Consensus and the St. Petersburg Leaders’ Declaration. Under the latter, G20 members commit to improve job quality, including through working conditions, wage bargaining frameworks, national wage-setting systems and access to social protection as well as enabling social security systems to include new forms of employment like job sharing (Natalia Fileva, Victoria Panova & Alena Peryshkina).

This is in accord with the findings and recommendations of the 2015 Progress of the World’s Women Report, which outlines a transformative framework for gender responsive macroeconomic policy. One recommendation is to set targets, for example to reduce the number of jobs without social security by 20 percent by 2025.

Buttressing Sustainability

10.Promote women’s leadership in creating sustainable consumption patterns and green growth

The G20 increasingly prioritizes green growth, as in the use of renewable energy, reduction of wasteful and consumption patterns, and technological advancements that help to conserve natural resource and protect the environment. Women are not only beneficiaries of such actions, but they are also some of the primary agents of change and can play an important role in the movement to reduce, reuse and recycle. Policies coupled with education for sustainable practices can foster women’s participation in the growing market for green enterprises and green jobs Goal 12 of the evolving Sustainable Development Goals is particularly relevant as an entry point for work in this area. The G20 should promote green education, green business and green jobs equally for both women and men (ILO).

11.Engender agricultural and food security policy with special attention to rural women

The G20 devotes considerable attention to the area of food security and agricultural protection. For example, the Seoul Development Consensus endorses the Rome Principles and agrees to work with relevant international institutions. The issue of food security and agricultural production are key topics among G20 agricultural ministers, who also meet in parallel to finance ministers and central bank representatives. The W20 could feed into these discussions by collating good practices and elaborating policy proposals. Areas of focus could include women’s cooperatives, community kitchens, women’s engagement in the organic farming value chain, and identifying infrastructure solutions that benefit women such as lighting and feeder roads to farms, and public transport solutions to facilitate the movement of goods and women service providers. Gender-sensitive value chain analyses would inform an understanding of how best to integrate women into agricultural projects, including in non-farm sectors such as logistics and administration.

Because women in rural settings often represent some of the most marginalized, vulnerable and underserved segments of the population, the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals related to agriculture and food security need to be particularly sensitive to the situation of women, building in job creation and entrepreneurship opportunities, whilst addressing factors that limit rural women’s full realization of their potential.

 

W20 Priority Policy Areas

The “˜Concept Paper: Establishing a Women 20 (W20) Outreach Group under the G20′ promulgated by the Government of Turkey as President of the G20 in 2015, proposed the establishment of a W20 as a full-fledged G20 outreach group to focus on promoting gender-inclusive economic growth. The mandate is to advance recent G20 commitments on: Women’s full economic and social participation (Los Cabos Leaders’ Declaration, 2012); enhance women’s financial inclusion and education (St Petersburg Leaders’ Declaration, 2013); and reduce the gap in participation rates between men and women in our countries by 25 per cent by 2025, taking into account national circumstances (Brisbane Leaders’ Declaration, 2014). Additional areas of focus identified in the concept note include promoting women’s entrepreneurship, women’s leadership in business and the public sector, and healthcare. Special mention was made that women’s interests remain represented across all G20 workstreams: the intention is not to create a repository for gender issues but for the W20 to rather help mainstream gender economic inclusiveness. The Concept Note further envisaged “a high-level policy forum to be held in Turkey ahead of the G20 Leaders’ Summit” . This note is provided by KAGIDER as Chair of the national troika after consultation with partners KADEM and TİKAD, as a deeper dive into the priority policy areas of the W20. These priorities are aligned with the three pillars of the G20 under the leadership of the Turkish Presidency: 1) Strengthening Global Recovery and Lifting Potential, 2) Enhancing Resilience, and 3) Buttressing Sustainability.

Strengthening Global Recovery and Lifting Potential

1.Address women’s economic empowerment through linkages between education, employment and entrepreneurship
G20 commitments to education, employment and entrepreneurship for women are articulated in The St. Petersburg Leaders’ Declaration (special focus on youth: young women and men) including through apprenticeship and vocational training programs (paragraph 29) and recommendations on girls need for financial education (paragraph 80). The Beijing Declaration for Action provides a rich set of broad policy recommendations in these areas, particularly under the strategic objectives on Women and Poverty, Education and Training of Women, and Women and the Economy

Gains that are made, for example, in closing the gap in labour force participation, need to be analysed to ascertain attribution: One of the reasons the gap in labor force participation has not decreased substantially since 1995 is because more women are staying in school. At the same, time women who do pursue education still face considerable challenges in obtaining employment. It is often assumed that gains in educational attainment will result in gains in employment and entrepreneurship, but this is not necessarily the case without appropriate policy interventions. The mechanisms in which these three fundamental pillars of economic growth interact as well as the gender differences and gaps must be better understood to guide policy. It is important for such actions to address supply side and demand side constraints faced by women. For example, a woman’s decision to seek employment or start a business is influenced by her understanding of accounting, taxes and marketing, as well as the availability of opportunities in the market. A mismatch between education provided and skills required to succeed in business or the job market, can exacerbate gender gaps.
2.Eliminate workplace discrimination, enforce rights and promote equal opportunities
Ending workplace discrimination and occupational segregation are critical to realizing women’s economic rights and decreasing the wage gaps and other gender inequalities in the labor market. Accountability mechanisms such as the FEM certification developed by KAGIDER and the World Bank aid in identifying equal opportunity employers. A component of the screening includes an audit of human resource policies. Additionally, countries could strengthen protections for women workers by improving the grievance systems and promoting corporate diversity policies. The Cannes Summit Final Declaration reaffirms respect for fundamental principles and rights, and work at the normative level. The recommendations in Beijing Platform for Action (BfA) F.1 and F.5 can further illuminate this area. In addition to public policy reforms, businesses can overhaul corporate policies through adherence to the Women’s Empowerment Principles (WEPs).
3.Ensure women’s access to finance and productive assets
The G20 has taken a variety of actions to increase women’s financial inclusion, and these efforts can be amplified through engagement with the W20. In 2010 the G20 agreed to launch the Global Partnership for Financial Inclusion (GPFI) and created a framework for financial inclusion. The Los Cabos Declaration was especially instrumental in terms of ramping up G20 efforts in the area of financial inclusion, especially because it endorses the G20 Basic Set of Financial Inclusion Indicators (paragraph 50) and specifically recognizes the need for women and youth to gain access to financial services and financial education (paragraph 53). In St. Petersburg, members agreed to launch the Women’s Finance Hub with the IFC. Continuation of efforts to promote financial inclusion of women can be in the form of both microfinance and mainstream finance. Strategic objective F2 of the Beijing Platform for Action offers some guidance on what works for women. TIKAD’s programme on Women Banking affords lessons learnt.
4.Support women owned enterprises and innovation
Small and medium enterprises employ 80 per cent of workers, with their success linked to increased job generation. Women-owned enterprises are currently weakly linked to public procurement markets with estimates of women owned companies winning less 1 per cent of tenders. Policies targeting sourcing from companies owned by women combined with capacity building programs, programs to boost the competitiveness of women owned companies, building transparent requests for proposals and tendering systems, fair and equal treatment programs that include closing information gaps, smaller contracts sizes, transparent and timely payments systems and gender budget allocation can foster women’s participation in this sizable market. This also incentivizes the movement of women from the informal to the formal sector. Tax incentives and tax regimes need to be examined to determine disproportionate burdens on women.

In addition, policies need to be identified to support women in high impact and scalable businesses. According to the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (2012) an estimated 126 million women were starting or running new businesses in 67 economies around the world. In addition, an estimated 98 million were running established businesses. These women are not only creating jobs for themselves and their co-founders, but they also employ others. A projected 48 million female entrepreneurs and 64 million female business owners currently employ one or more people in their businesses. In addition, these women plan to grow their businesses. A predicted seven million female entrepreneurs and five million female established business owners plan to grow their businesses by at least six employees over the next five years. Sustainability of these companies will contribute significantly to inclusive economic growth.
5.Increase women in both public sector and private sector leadership positions
Lack of women on corporate boards has consequences for societies. Studies show that corporations with more women on their boards behave differently. They are more consumers oriented, more transparent, more environmentally conscious and have better human resources policies for women employees. Women employees are better motivated if there are women on the board. Companies with women directors also tend to have less structural layoffs. Empowering women fuels thriving economies, spurring productivity and growth. In the aftermath of the financial crisis, various commentators and government ministers have suggested that the tragic collapse of some major institutions might have been mitigated had there been more women on the boards to moderate the financial performance focused risk-taking culture. This view backed up by a number of research studies on the effect of gender on risk-taking, which shows that women are more stakeholder oriented and more risk averse than men.

Women quotas in political representation aim to encourage improving women’s condition through laws and policies, they would not be effective unless they are coupled with the quotas for women in corporate boards, which have the power to allocate economic / financial resources, to develop human capital and have the capacity to influence laws and regulations through political lobbying. Largest companies listed on the stock exchanges around the world play a significant role in global business as well as contributing significantly to the national economies within which they operate. The decisions taken by these companies have ramifications not only for their businesses and their employees but also for the whole economy. Additionally, education, mentoring and support in the careers, and improving working conditions of women are important pathways to reach diversity in boardrooms.

Targets could be formulated to tackle the lack of women’s representation, for example, to increase the number of Women on the Boards and Top Management as well as in Government Offices by 20% by 2020. Opportunities exist to increase women’s participation in G20 processes, both through official engagement groups as well in meetings with government representatives.
6.Strengthen women’s economic, social and political networks
Women’s business organisations and associations play a catalytic role in fostering the participation of women in all facets of business and society. They area also an important knowledge multiplier in terms of raising awareness about how to leverage new policies and partner with government and the private sector to amplify success. The W20 could act as a vehicle for the wider dissemination of information on G20 initiatives and encourage women to take a more active role in politics, and consultations on polices and the development of national or sectoral development plans.

Enhancing Resilience

7.Support Work-life Balance.
The labor force participation rate is 56% for women and 86% for men. In 2014, G20 countries undertook to reduce this gender gap by 25% by 2025 with the expectation to bring 100 million women into the work force. The lack of available, affordable, appropriate childcare services and facilities is a key impediment to the G20 member states ability to realize commitments to gender inclusive economic growth. The W20 workplan under construction, includes undertaking a review of childcare policies and practices, particularly for the years 0 ““ 3 years, in G20 member states to identify good practices that could be replicated. Investment in childcare facilities and the running of the centres themselves, represent an area of under-realised job generation.

Offering childcare services that enable women to achieve work-life balance is in line with commitments G20 members have made in the area of improving social protection and work conditions, as well as resolving to increase female labor force participation. The Cannes Summit Final Declaration (2011) explicitly mentions the report of the Social Protection Floor Advisory Group. The Los Cabos Leader’s Declaration (2012) reaffirms the priorities of the Cannes summit in 2011, where members agree to “advance gender equality in all areas including skills training, wages and salaries, treatment in the workplace, and responsibilities in care-giving” .

There still remains room for the G20 is explore more in depth the relationship between gender equality, women’s economic empowerment and responsibility for childcare. For this reason the first concrete step is to review existing policies and growth strategies of member countries and analyze the extent to which they support paid family leave and flexible work hours. Different strategies could be compared in order to identify best practices and lessons learned. This analysis could also be applied to aged care ““ an area, like childcare that also presents job generation opportunities.
8.Deliver Adequate Social Protection
Social protection is a key component of economic resilience and poverty eradication. It can disproportionately benefit women, who often provide more support and care to the elderly, disabled and vulnerable in society and have gender specific healthcare needs. When adequate services and protections are available, sustained health contributes not only to better well being but greater productivity with increased time available, including to erstwhile caregivers, to engage in income-generating activities..
9.Improve Working Conditions
Existing G20 commitments support improving working conditions and reducing informal, vulnerable and precarious employment, and are articulated in both the Seoul Development Consensus and the St. Petersburg Leaders’ Declaration. Under the latter, G20 members commit to improve job quality, including through working conditions, wage bargaining frameworks, national wage-setting systems and access to social protection. This is in accord with the findings and recommendations of the 2015 Progress of the World’s Women Report, which outlines a transformative framework for gender responsive macroeconomic policy. One recommendation is to set targets, for example to reduce the number of jobs without social security by 20 percent by 2025.

Buttressing Sustainability

10.Promote women’s leadership in creating sustainable consumption patterns and green growth
The G20 increasingly prioritizes green growth, as in the use of renewable energy, reduction of wasteful and consumption patterns, and technological advancements that help to conserve natural resource and protect the environment. Women are not only beneficiaries of such actions, but they are also some of the primary agents of change and can play an important role in the movement to reduce, reuse and recycle. Policices coupled with education for sustainable practices can foster women’s participation in the growing market for green enterprises and green jobs Goal 12 of the evolving Sustainable Development Goals is particularly relevant as an entry point for work in this area.
11.Engender agricultural and food security policy with special attention to rural women
The G20 devotes considerable attention to the area of food security and agricultural protection. For example, the Seoul Development Consensus endorses the Rome Principles and agrees to work with relevant international institutions. The issue of food security and agricultural production are key topics among G20 agricultural ministers, who also meet in parallel to finance ministers and central bank representatives. The W20 could feed into these discussions by collating good practices and elaborating policy proposals. Areas of focus could include women’s cooperatives, community kitchens, women’s engagement in the organic farming value chain, and identifying infrastructure solutions that benefit women such as lighting and feeder roads to farms, and public transport solutions to facilitate the movement of goods and women service providers. Gender-sensitive value chain analyses would inform an understanding of how best to integrate women into agricultural projects, including in non-farm sectors such as logistics and administration.

Because women in rural settings often represent some of the most marginalized, vulnerable and underserved segments of the population, the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals related to agriculture and food security.That is, women’s role is crucial for food security since half of the world’s food is produced by women ( FAO,1995) (ILO).

Studies to be particularly sensitive to the situation of women, building in job creation and entrepreneurship opportunities, whilst addressing factors that limit rural women’s full realization of their potential.

There are already good practices of women’s engagement in greening and agricultural production , through afforestation, water and soil conservation  and such practices could be widely disseminated and replicated (ILO).

W20 Öncelikli Politika Alanları

G20 2015 Dönem Başkanı olan Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Hükümeti tarafından kabul edilen ‘G20 Kapsamında Kadın20 (W20) adlı bir açılım grubunun kurulmasına dair Kavram Raporu’nda, ekonomik büyümenin toplumsal cinsiyete duyarlı ve kapsayıcı şekilde desteklenmesine odaklanan ve yine G20 altında yapılandırılacak başlı başına bir açılım grubu kurulması, yani W20’nin hayata geçirilmesi önerilmektedir. Bu grup, G20’nin yakın geçmişte benimsediği şu taahhütler doğrultusunda ilerleme kaydetmek için çalışma yetkisine sahiptir: Kadınların tam ekonomik ve sosyal katılımı (Los Cabos Liderler Bildirgesi, 2012); kadınların finansal tabana yayılma ve eğitim konusunda ilerlemesi (St Petersburg Liderler Bildirgesi, 2013); yerel koşulları da dikkate alarak her bir ülkede kadınlar ve erkeklerin katılım oranları arasındaki farkı 2025 yılına kadar yüzde 25 azaltmak (Brisbane Liderler Bildirgesi, 2014). Bu kavram raporunda ele alınan diğer faaliyet alanları ise kadın girişimciliğinin desteklenmesi, kadınların iş dünyası ve kamu sektöründe liderliği ve sağlık hizmetleri alanlarıdır. Ayrıca G20’nin tüm faaliyet alanlarında kadınların yararının her zaman gözetilmesinin önemi vurgulanmıştır: burada amaç W20 sayesinde toplumsal cinsiyet alanında yeni bir kaynak havuzu oluşturmak değil W20 sayesinde toplumsal cinsiyete duyarlı ve kapsayıcı ekonomik büyüme yaklaşımının tüm politika alanlarında benimsenmesine katkı sağlamaktır. Kavram Raporunda ayrıca “G20 Liderler Zirvesi öncesinde Türkiye’de üst düzeyli bir politika forumunun gerçekleştirilmesi” öngörülmektedir. Bu rapor, W20’nin öncelikli politika alanlarına daha derinlemesine bir bakış sunmak amacıyla, ulusal troyka W20 Türkiye Yürütme Komitesi tarafından yapılan istişare sonucunda hazırlanmıştır. Bu öncelikler, Türkiye Dönem Başkanlığında G20’nin benimsediği üç temel öncelikle örtüşmektedir: 1) Küresel Toparlanmasının Güçlendirilmesi ve Potansiyelin Arttırılması, 2) Dayanıklılığın Arttırılması ve 3) Sürdürülebilirliğin Desteklenmesi.

 

Küresel Toparlanmanın Güçlendirilmesi ve Ekonomik Potansiyelin Arttırılması

  • Eğitim, istihdam ve girişimcilik arasındaki bağdan yola çıkarak kadınların ekonomik açıdan güçlendirilmesi

Kadınlar için eğitim, istihdam ve girişimcilik konusunda G20’nin benimsediği taahhütler St. Petersburg Liderler Bildirgesi’nde yer almaktadır; (gençliğe özel vurgu: genç kadınlar ve erkekler) çıraklık ve mesleki eğitim programları (29. paragraf) ve kız çocuklarının finans konusunda eğitim ihtiyacına dair tavsiyelerde (80. paragraf) bu konu ele alınmaktadır. Pekin Bildirgesi ve Eylem Platformu; özellikle Kadınlar ve Yoksulluk, Kadınların Eğitim ve Öğretimi, Kadınlar ve Ekonomi konulu stratejik hedefler altında kapsamlı ve içerik yönünden zengin politika tavsiyeleri sunmaktadır.

Elde edilen kazanımların, örneğin işgücü piyasasına katılım oranları arasındaki farkın giderilmesine yönelik kazanımların çok iyi tahlil edilmesi, doğru yorumlanması gerekmektedir: 1995 yılından bu yana işgücüne katılım oranlarındaki farkın ciddi ölçüde azalmamasının sebeplerinden biri, daha fazla sayıda kadının eğitimine devam etmesidir. Ayrıca eğitimlerini yarıda bırakmayıp tamamlayan kadınlar bile hala iş bulmakta zorlanmaktadır. Genelde eğitim durumunun iyi olması halinde, istihdam ve girişimcilikte iyi sonuçlar elde edileceği varsayılır ancak uygun politika müdahaleleri yapılmadığı sürece, bu durum geçerli olmamaktadır. Politikalara doğru yön verebilmek için; ekonominin bu temel üç unsurunun birbiriyle etkileşimde olduğu mekanizmaların ve toplumsal cinsiyet uçurumlarının, farklarının çok daha iyi anlaşılması gerekmektedir. Atılacak adımlarda, arz ve talep yönünden kadınların karşılaştıkları zorlukları ele almak önemlidir. Örneğin bir kadının iş arama kararı alması veya kendi işini kurma kararı alması; muhasebeden, vergilerden, pazarlamadan ne kadar anladığına göre ve piyasada fırsatların mevcut olup olmayışına göre şekillenmektedir. Kendilerine sunulan eğitim ile iş dünyasında veya işgücü piyasasında başarı için gereken beceriler örtüşmediğinde, toplumsal cinsiyet uçurumu derinleşebilmektedir.

  • İşyerinde ayrımcılığın ortadan kalkması, hakların yerine getirilmesi ve eşit fırsatların sunulması

Kadınların ekonomik haklarını kullanabilmeleri, ücretler farkının azaltılabilmesi ve işgücü piyasasındaki diğer toplumsal cinsiyet eşitsizliklerinin giderilebilmesi için, işyerindeki ayrımcılığın ve mesleklerde gözetilen cinsiyet ayrımının sona ermesi gerekmektedir. Geliştirilmiş olan FEM (Fırsat Eşitliği Modeli) sertifikaları gibi hesap verebilirlik mekanizmaları, eşit fırsat tanıyan işverenlerin tespit edilmesine yardımcı olmaktadır. Bunun için ön elemelerde dikkate alınan unsurlardan biri insan kaynakları politikalarının denetimidir. Ayrıca ülkelerde kadın işçilerin daha güçlü mekanizmalarla korunmasını sağlamak için daha iyi şikayet mekanizmaları geliştirilebilir ve kurumsal çeşitlilik politikaları uygulanabilir. Cannes Zirvesi Sonuç Bildirgesi’nde; temel haklara, ilkelere ve normatif düzeyde işe saygı yeniden vurgulanmıştır. Pekin Eylem Platformu’nun (BfA) F.1 ve F.5 tavsiyeleri bu konuyu daha çok aydınlatmaktadır. Kamu politika reformlarına ilave olarak, işletmeler Kadınların Güçlendirilmesi İlkeleri’ne (WEPs) bağlı kalarak kurumsal politikalarını elden geçirebilirler.

  • Kadınların finansmana ve verimli varlıklara erişimini sağlamak

G20’nin kadınlara yönelik finansal tabana yayılmayı amaçlayan faaliyetleri, W20 ile yapılan güç birliğiyle daha ileri seviyeye ulaşabilir. 2010’da G20, Finansal Tabana Yayılma İçin Küresel Ortaklık (GPFI) kurma kararı almış ve bir finansal tabana yayılma çerçevesi oluşturmuştur. Los Cabos Bildirgesi, G20’nin finansal tabana yayılma konusundaki çabalarının etkisini büyük ölçüde arttırmıştır çünkü bu bildirge, G20 Finansal Tabana Yayılma Göstergeleri Seti’ni (50. paragraf) benimsemekte, ayrıca kadınların ve gençlerin özellikle finansal hizmetlere ve finansal eğitime erişim ihtiyacını ortaya koymaktadır (53. paragraf). St. Petersburg’da üyeler, IFC ile birlikte Kadınlar İçin Mali Ağ kurma kararı almışlardır. Kadınlar için finansal tabana yayılma çabalarının devamı, mikro finans ve standart finans kapsamında gerçekleşebilir. Pekin Eylem Platformu’nun F2 Stratejik Hedefi, bu açıdan kadınlar için nelerin işe yarayabileceğine dair yol göstermektedir. Kadın Bankacılığı programı buna örnek olabilir.

  • Kadınlara ait işletmelerin ve inovasyonun desteklenmesi

İşçilerin yüzde 80’i küçük ve orta ölçekli işletmelerde istihdam edilmektedir; bu işletmelerin başarısı, yaratılan iş imkanı artışıyla ilgilidir. Şu anda kadınlara ait işletmelerin kamuda satın alımların yapıldığı pazarlarla bağı zayıftır ve bu işletmelerin kamu ihalelerinin yüzde 1’inden azını alabildikleri tahmin edilmektedir. Kadınların bu denli büyük bir pazara erişiminin arttırılması amacıyla; kadınlara ait işletmelerden alım yapmayı hedefleyen politikalarla birlikte kapasite geliştirme programları uygulanabilir, kadınlara ait şirketlerin rekabet edebilirliğini arttırmayı hedefleyen programlar geliştirilebilir, şeffaf teklif çağrısı ve ihale sistemleri oluşturulabilir, bilgi eksikliklerini giderecek adil ve eşit muamele yapan programlar uygulanabilir, boyutu görece daha küçük sözleşmelerle çalışılabilir, ödemelerin şeffaf ve zamanında gerçekleştiği bir sistem kurulabilir ve toplumsal cinsiyete dayalı bütçe tahsisi yapılabilir. Bu sayede kayıt dışı sektörde çalışan kadınların kayıtlı sektöre geçişi de teşvik edilmiş olur. Kadınların üzerindeki orantısız yüklerin tespit edilebilmesi için vergi teşvikleri ve vergi rejimleri de incelenmelidir.

Ayrıca etki alanı büyük ve ölçeklendirilebilir işletmelerdeki kadınların desteklenmesine yönelik politikaların belirlenmesi gerekmektedir. Küresel Girişimcilik Monitörü’ne (2012) göre dünyanın 67 ekonomisinde bulunan tahmini 126 milyon kadın yeni işletme kurmuş veya bu işletmeleri yönetmiştir. Buna ilave olarak, tahmini 98 milyon kadın da halihazırda kurulu işletmeleri yönetmiştir. Bu kadınlar sadece kendilerine ve kurucu ortaklarına iş imkanı yaratmakla kalmayıp işletmeleri için başkalarını da işe almaktadır. Tahminlere göre 48 milyon kadın girişimci ve işletme sahibi 64 milyon kadın şu anda işletmelerinde bir veya daha fazla kişi istihdam etmektedir. Üstelik bu kadınlar işlerini büyütmeyi planlamaktadır. Tahmini yedi milyon kadın girişimci ve kurulu işletme sahibi olan beş milyon kadın, önümüzdeki beş yıl içerisinde en az altı kişi daha istihdam ederek işlerini büyütme planı yapmaktadır. Bu şirketlerin sürdürülebilirliği, duyarlı ve kapsayıcı ekonomik büyümeye anlamlı bir katkı yapacaktır.

  • Hem kamu sektöründe hem de özel sektörde lider pozisyonda olan kadınların sayısını arttırmak

Kadınların yönetim kurullarında yer almıyor olması toplumlar üzerinde belli sonuçlar doğurmaktadır. Yapılan çalışmalara göre yönetim kurullarında daha fazla sayıda kadın üyenin bulunduğu şirketler daha farklı hareket etmektedir. Bu şirketler daha tüketici odaklı, daha şeffaf, çevreye daha duyarlı olmakta ve kadın çalışanları için daha iyi insan kaynakları politikaları uygulamaktadırlar. Yönetim kurullarında kadınlar mevcut olduğunda, şirketlerde çalışan kadınların motivasyonu daha yüksek olmaktadır. Direktörü kadın olan şirketlerde genelde yapısal işten çıkarmalar daha az yaşanmaktadır. Kadınların güçlenmesi; ekonomilerin iyiye gitmesini, üretkenlik ve büyümenin desteklenmesini sağlar. Mali krizin ardından çok sayıda yorumcu ve devlet bakanının paylaştığı görüşe göre; bazı büyük kuruluşların trajik çöküşü, yönetim kurullarında finansal performansa odaklı risk alma kültürünü daha ılımlı şekilde dengeleyebilecek kadın sayısının arttırılmasıyla belli ölçüde önlenebilirdi. Toplumsal cinsiyetin risk alma davranışı üzerindeki etkilerini inceleyen araştırmalar da bu görüşü desteklemektedir; bu araştırmalara göre, kadınlar erkeklere kıyasla paydaşları daha çok düşünen ve riskten kaçınan tutumlar sergilemektedir.

Siyasette temsil edilmek için kadın kotalarının uygulanmasında amaç, kanunlar ve politikalar vasıtasıyla kadınların durumunu iyileştirmektir; bu uygulamaların amacına ulaşabilmesi için şirket yönetim kurullarında da kadınlar için kotalar getirilmelidir çünkü ekonomik ve finansal kaynak tahsisi yapmaya yetkili olan, beşeri sermayeyi geliştiren ve siyasi lobi faaliyetleriyle kanun ve yönetmelikleri etkileme kapasitesine sahip olanlar, şirket yönetim kurullarıdır. Tüm dünyada borsada işlem gören büyük şirketler hem küresel iş dünyasında önemli rol oynamakta hem de içinde yer aldıkları ulusal ekonomilere ciddi katkılar sağlamaktadır. Bu şirketlerin aldıkları kararlar kendi işletmelerini ve işçilerini etkilediği kadar tüm ekonomiyi de etkilemektedir. Ayrıca kadınların çalışma koşullarının iyileştirilmesi ve kariyer konusunda eğitim, koçluk ve destek sağlanması, yönetim kurullarında çeşitlilik elde etmek için kullanılan önemli yollardandır.

Kadınların daha çok temsil edilmesini sağlamak için belli hedefler konabilir; örneğin Şirketlerin Yönetim Kurullarında, Üst Yönetiminde ve Devlet Kurumlarında yer alan Kadınların sayısını 2020 yılına kadar yüzde 20 artırmak hedeflenebilir. Hem resmi çalışma grupları hem de devlet temsilcileriyle yapılan toplantılar, kadınların G20 süreçlerine katılımını arttırmak için fırsat sunmaktadır.

  • Kadınların ekonomik, sosyal ve siyasal ağlarının güçlendirilmesi

Kadınların iş dünyasında kurdukları örgütler ve dernekler, hem iş dünyasında hem de toplumda kadınların katılımını destekleyen itici güç unsurlarıdır. Bu yapılar aynı zamanda yeni politikaların geliştirilmesinde kaldıraç etkisi yaratmaya ve başarılı uygulamaların yaygınlaşması için kamu ve özel sektör ortaklıkları geliştirmeye dair farkındalık oluşturarak bu alanda bilginin yayılmasını da sağlamaktadır. W20; G20 girişimleriyle ilgili bilgilerin daha geniş kesimlere aktarılması için bir araç olabilir ve kadınları siyasette, politika istişarelerinde ve ulusal veya sektörel kalkınma planlarının hazırlanmasında daha aktif rol almaya cesaretlendirebilir.

Ekonomik Dayanıklılığın Arttırılması

  • İş hayatı ve özel hayatın dengelenmesine destek

Kadınların işgücü piyasasına katılım oranı yüzde 56 iken erkekler için bu oran yüzde 86’dır. 100 milyon kadını işgücü piyasasına çekebilme arzusundan yola çıkarak G20 ülkeleri 2014 yılında bir taahhüde imza atmış, kadınlarla erkekler arasındaki işgücüne katılım oranı farkını 2025 yılına kadar yüzde 25 azaltmayı hedef olarak belirlemişlerdir. G20 ülkelerinde ekonomik büyümenin toplumsal cinsiyete duyarlı ve kapsayıcı şekilde gerçekleşmesini engelleyen en temel sebeplerden biri, maddi olarak karşılanabilir ve uygun çocuk bakım hizmetlerinin ve kurumlarının mevcut olmayışıdır. Henüz yapım aşamasında olan W20 iş planında, G20 ülkelerinde özellikle 0-3 yaş arası çocuklar için geliştirilmiş çocuk bakım hizmeti politikaları ve uygulamalarının incelenmesine yer verilmekte, böylece iyi uygulamaların tespit edilip yaygınlaştırılması hedeflenmektedir. Çocuk bakım hizmeti veren merkezlere yapılacak yatırımlar ve bu merkezlerin işletilmesi sayesinde pek çok yeni iş imkanı doğabilecekken bu imkandan tam olarak yararlanılamamaktadır.

Kadınların iş hayatıyla özel hayatı dengelemelerini sağlayacak çocuk bakım hizmetlerinin sunulması; hem sosyal koruma ve çalışma koşullarının iyileştirilmesi hem de kadınların işgücü piyasasına katılım oranlarının arttırılması için G20 üyelerinin benimsediği taahhütlerle örtüşmektedir. Cannes Zirvesi Sonuç Bildirgesi (2011), Sosyal Koruma Zemini Danışma Grubunun raporuna açıkça atıfta bulunmaktadır. Los Cabos Liderler Bildirgesi (2012); “beceri kazandırma, ücretler, maaşlar, işyerindeki davranışlar ve bakım konusundaki sorumluluklar da dahil her alanda toplumsal cinsiyet eşitliğinin arttırılması” üzerinde üyelerin anlaşmaya vardığı 2011 tarihli Cannes Zirvesi önceliklerini bir kez daha teyit etmektedir.

Toplumsal cinsiyet eşitliği, kadınların ekonomik olarak güçlendirilmesi ve çocuk bakım sorumluluğu olarak ifade edilen üç konunun birbiriyle etkileşiminde, G20’nin daha derinlemesine anlaması gereken bazı yönler bulunmaktadır. Bu amaçla atılacak ilk somut adım, üye ülkelerin mevcut politikalarını ve büyüme stratejilerini incelemek, ayrıca bu ülkelerin ücretli ebeveynlik izinlerini ve esnek çalışma saatlerini ne derece desteklediklerini anlamaktır. En iyi uygulamaların ve alınan derslerin ortaya konması için farklı stratejiler karşılaştırmalı olarak incelenebilir. Bu analiz, tıpkı çocuk bakımında olduğu gibi iş yaratma imkanları sunan yaşlı bakımı alanında da gerçekleştirilebilir.

  • Yeterli sosyal korumanın sağlanması

Sosyal koruma; ekonomik dayanıklılık ve yoksulluğun ortadan kaldırılmasında temel bir unsurdur. Sosyal koruma; toplumda yaşlılara, engellilere, kırılgan kesimlere genelde daha fazla bakım ve destek veren ve aynı zamanda toplumsal cinsiyete özgü sağlık hizmetlerine ihtiyaç duyan kadınlara orantısız ölçüde fayda sağlayabilir. Yeterli hizmet ve korumanın mevcut olması sayesinde elde edilebilecek devamlı sağlık hali pek çok faydayı beraberinde getirmekte, hem iyi olma durumunu arttırıp hem de gelir getirici faaliyetlere ayıracak vaktin (bakıcılar için de) artmasını sağlayarak üretkenliği sağlamaktadır.

  • Çocuk bakım gibi sosyal bakım altyapılarının kuvvetlendirilerek çalışma koşullarının iyileştirilmesi

Mevcut G20 taahhütleri; çalışma koşullarının iyileştirilmesini ve kayıt dışı, dayanıksız, güvencesiz istihdamın azaltılmasını öngörmektedir. Ayrıca bu taahhütler Seul Kalkınma Uzlaşısı’nda ve St. Petersburg Liderler Bildirgesi’nde de açık bir şekilde ifade edilmektedir. Bu bildirgede G20 üyeleri çalışma koşulları, maaş pazarlığı çerçeveleri, ulusal maaş belirleme sistemleri ve sosyal korumaya erişim gibi alanlarda çalışarak iş kalitesinin iyileştirilmesini taahhüt etmektedir. Bu taahhüt, toplumsal cinsiyete duyarlı makroekonomik politikalara yönelik bir dönüşüm çerçevesi ortaya koyan 2015 Dünya Kadınlarının İlerlemesi Raporu’ndaki bulgu ve tavsiyelerle de örtüşmektedir. Tavsiyelerden biri, sosyal güvencesiz işlerin sayısında 2025 yılına kadar yüzde 20’lik azalma gibi hedeflerin belirlenmesidir.

Ekonomik Sürdürülebilirliğin Desteklenmesi

  • Sürdürülebilir tüketim eğilimlerinin geliştirilmesi ve yeşil büyümenin sağlanmasında kadın liderliğinin desteklenmesi

G20; yenilenebilir enerji kullanımı, müsrif tüketim alışkanlıklarının azaltılması, doğal kaynakları ve çevreyi korumaya yardım eden teknolojik gelişmelerin takip edilmesiyle yeşil büyüme konusuna giderek daha çok öncelik vermektedir. Kadınlar bu konuda hem faydalanıcı hem de önemli bir değişim aracı konumundadır. Kadınlar; azaltma, yeniden kullanma ve geri dönüşüm yapma hareketinde önemli bir rol oynayabilir. Sürdürülebilir uygulamalar konusunda verilecek eğitimlerle desteklenen politikalar kadınların yeşil işletmeler ve yeşil işlere sahip büyüyen pazarlara katılımını arttırabilir. Gitgide gelişip değişen Sürdürülebilir Kalkınma Hedefleri’nin on ikincisi, bu konuda yapılacak çalışmalar için güzel bir giriş noktasıdır.

  • Özellikle kırsal kesimde yaşayan kadınları dikkate alarak tarım ve gıda güvencesi politikası geliştirmek

G20; gıda güvencesi ve tarımsal koruma konusuna büyük önem vermektedir. Örneğin Seul Kalkınma Uzlaşısı, Roma Prensipleri’ni benimseyerek ilgili uluslararası kuruluşlarla çalışma kararı almıştır. G20 Maliye Bakanları ve Merkez Bankası Başkanları toplantılarına paralel olarak gerçekleşen tarım bakanları toplantılarının en temel konularından biri gıda güvencesi ve tarımsal üretimdir. W20 de iyi uygulamaları gösterip politika önerileri getirerek bu toplantıların tartışmalarına katkı sağlayabilir. Odaklanılacak alanlar arasında kadın kooperatifleri, toplum mutfakları, organik tarım değer zincirinde kadının yeri, aydınlatma ve tarlalara yan yolların yapımı gibi kadınlara fayda sağlayacak altyapı çözümleri, malların ve kadınlara hizmet sağlayanların dolaşımını kolaylaştıracak toplu taşıma çözümleri yer alabilir. Toplumsal cinsiyete duyarlı şekilde yapılacak bir değer zinciri analizi, kadınların lojistik ve idari sektörler gibi tarla dışındaki alanlarda katılımını arttıracak tarım projelerine nasıl entegre olabileceğini gösterebilir.

Kırsal kesimlerde yaşayan kadınlar genelde nüfusun marjinalleşmiş, kırılgan ve hizmetlerden en az faydalanabilen kesimine dahildir; bu yüzden Sürdürülebilir Kalkınma Hedefleri’nin tarım ve gıda güvencesiyle ilgili uygulamalarında, kadınların durumuna büyük bir hassasiyetle yaklaşılarak bir yandan iş yaratma ve girişimcilik imkanları sunulmalı, diğer yandan da kırsal kesimdeki kadınların tam potansiyellerini gerçekleştirmelerini engelleyen faktörlerin üzerine gidilmelidir.